MyCatDNA – DNA screening

A revolution in genetic screening: MyCatDNA by Genoscoper

MyCatDNA is a comprehensive DNA screening package for cat breeders and owners.

The test can be ordered here – Bestill testpakken her

Article by Anne Marit Berge – Text in English and Norwegian – tekst på engelsk og norsk.

MyCatDNA by Genoscoper is known as Wisdom Panel/Optimal Selection in the USA

 

Overview

MyCatDNA is a test package (a testing panel) that will analyse your cats’s DNA and give you results for:

  • over 20 traits: colours, blood type and more
  • over 40 disorders, with focus on those relevant for your breed
  • the cat’s actual genetic diversity, individually and compared within the breed, and to other breeds
  • access to Breeder Tool where you can evaluate which potential partner will give the healthiest offspring

MyCatDNA er en helt ny testpakke for katt, som analyserer kattens DNA og gir mye informasjon:

  • over 20 forskjellige gener for farge, mønster, blodtype og mer
  • over 40 sykdomsmutasjoner testet, med fokus på dem som er relevante for din rase
  • kattens faktiske genetiske variasjon, målt individuelt, og sammenlignet med rasen og andre raser
  • tilgang til avlsverktøyet Breeder Tool hvor man kan sammenligne mulige paringer for best mulig avkom

 

Content – innhold

Click to scroll down directly to each chapter

  1. Disorders – sykdommer

  2. Traits – egenskaper

  3. Genetic Diversity – genetisk variasjon

  4. Genetic Relationships – genetisk slektskap

  5. Breeder Tool – Avlsverktøy

  6. Examples and more details

  7. Diversity in different cat breeds – forskjellige raser

  8. FAQ – vanlige spørsmål

 

1. Disorders

The test panel will analyse your cat for over 40 known disease mutations. It includes more tests than any other package on the marked at this time (March 2018). The main focus is on disorders known in the breed, and where status should be known before breeding the cat.

Testpakken analyserer for over 40 kjente sykdomsmutasjoner, og deriblant alle DNA-tester anbefalt i FIFes oppdrettsreglement (OR, appendix 1). Den inkluderer flere tester enn noen annen pakke på markedet pr i dag (mars 2018). Hovedfokus er på sykdommer som er kjent i rasen og som man som oppdretter bør vite status for.

Known disorders in the breed

The disorders that are relevant for your breed will be shown on the profile page.

Det er sykdommene kjent i rasen som presenteres på kattens profilside.

Relevant disorders are shown on the cat’s profile

For each tested disease one can click to read more, and there is a PDF for download.

Klikk på navnet på sykdom viser en forklaring på engelsk, og lenke til en PDF med mer informasjon.

Clicking will open the explanation and a link to download a pdf with further information

 

Additional disorders tested

To see the results for all the other mutations not normally found in the breed, you just open that section in the cat’s profile page (click the + sign). Normally your cat will be negative for all of these; however if there has been outcrosses earlier in the pedigree sometimes a rare mutation can be discovered. For breeders working with outcross breeding programmes or new foundation, this part of the test is important and valuable.

Det ligger også inne en lang liste over status for sykdommer som vanligvis ikke fins i rasen. Disse kan man klikke og gå inn på om man vil. Normalt vil katten være negativ for alle disse, men om det har vært krysninger lenger bak i stamtavlen, så kan det noen ganger oppdages sjeldne mutasjoner man vanligvis ikke finner i rasen. For oppdrettere som jobber med utparingsprogrammer eller ny foundation, så er denne delen av testen viktig og verdifull.

 

My cat is a carrier – what to do?

Being a carrier of a recessive disorder  is not dangerous. A carrier cat is a healthy cat.

A recessive gene means that a kitten has to inherit it from both  parents to get the disorder. If you have a carrier, you must find partners who are not carriers for that same disorder. Check out Breeder Tool below for partners clear of the mutation.

 

Om katten er bærer  (carrier) av en recessiv mutasjon, så er det helt ufarlig. En bærer er en frisk katt.

Et recessivt gen betyr at kattungen må arve det fra begge  foreldre, for å få sykdommen. Dersom du har en bærer, må du altså finne paringspartner som ikke er bærer av den samme sykdommen. Du kan bruke Breeder Tool for å se potensielle partnere som ikke har mutasjonen.

 

My cat is heterozygous positive “At Risk” – what to do?

Some disorders are dominant, and the cat can or will get sick with only 1 copy of the mutation, that is, inherited from only 1 parent. Luckily only few disorders are dominant. Also some dominant disorders have low penetrance, meaning that not all cats with the mutation will develop illness. Known dominant disorders are:

  • PKD in Persian – dominant with high penetrance.
  • HCM1-A31P in Maine Coon – dominant, fairly low penetrance for heterozygous cats, very high risk for homozygous positive cats.

 

Noen sykdomsgener er dominante, og katten kan bli eller vil bli syk selv med bare 1 kopi av mutasjonen, altså arvet fra bare 1 av foreldrene. Heldigvis er det få sykdommer som arves dominant. Noen dominante lidelser har også lav penetrans, som betyr at ikke katter med mutasjonen vil utvikle sykdom. Kjente dominante sykdommer er:

  • PKD hos Perser – dominant med høy penetrans
  • HCM1-A31P hos Maine Coon – dominant, med ganske lav penetrans for heterozygote katter, men veldig høy risiko for homozygot positive katter

Below an example of how this looks in the cat profile.   Under et eksempel på hvordan det ser ut på kattens profilside.

The overview page will have a remark if the cat is at risk for any of the tested disorders

Cat at risk (marked red) and carrier (marked yellow)

 

2. Traits – egenskaper

List of colours, patterns, coat, blood type and morphological traits (tail, toes).

Liste over farge, mønster, hårlag, blodtype og morfologiske trekk (hale, tær):

  • Agouti, Charcoal (BEN)
  • Brown, chocolate, cinnamon
  • Colourpoint: Siamese point, Burmese point
  • Dilute
  • White/KIT gene: Birman gloves
  • Dominant White – White Spotting
  • Amber (NFO), Russet (BUR)
  • Coat: Longhair: M1, M2, M3, M4, Rexing: Cornish, Selkirk, Sphynx DRX
  • Morphology: Short Tail (MAN, JBT, KBT), Polydactyly (mittens, Hemingway mutation), Fold ears (osteochondrodysplasia under disorders)

Not yet tested: Rexing gene: Devon Rex for outcrosses. This is available at other labs. NB: The test panel is still in development.

Can not be DNA-testet yet at any lab: Silver, red/orange, mackerel tabby, spotted, wideband (shaded, golden), caramel, poydactyly/pattyfoot, curled ears. There is ongoing research for many of these, at the 99 lives project and elsewhere.

Some examples:

A colourpoint agouti carrying chocolate and dilute

Polydactyl cat with the Hemingway mutation, heterozygous

Read more about polydactyly in cats

 

Blood type:

The test includes 3 mutations for blood type. Testpanelet inkluderer 3 mutasjoner for blodtype.

3 blood type mutations tested, for B and AB (c)

Some breeds have AB blood types, and the test includes analysis for Ragdoll AB.

I enkelte raser fins blodtype AB, og testpakken inkluderer Ragdoll AB.

Ragdoll with AB blood type, carrying B

Blood type DNA-testing has a degree of uncertainty, and there will be some “no call” results. If you are uncertain of a queen being B, an additional serological test can be useful before breeding.

Blodtypeanalysen har en viss grad av usikkerhet, og det hender det oppstår “no call”-resultater. Dersom man er veldig usikker på om en avlshunn er B, vil en serologisk test i tillegg være nyttig før avl.

Read more about cat blood type B

 

3. Genetic Diversity

High diversity means low inbreeding. Healthy breeding means we do not want the inbreeding to be too high in a breed. Traditionally breeders calculate inbreeding coefficient COI for a combination. However the actual diversity can now be analysed from the cat’s DNA!

MyCatDNA gives you the individual cat’s genetic diversity!

The Genetic Diversity feature shows the individual cat’s measured diversity (heterozygosity), analysed in the cat’s DNA and based on thousands of base pairs of the genome.

The feature also shows a graph of all the other cats in the same breed, with median diversity for the breed, and median diversity for all cats. These numbers are adjusted as more and more cats are tested and entered in the database.

 

Stor genetisk variasjon vil si lav innavlsgrad. Sunn avl betyr at vi ikke vil ha innavlen for stor i en rase. Vanligvis beregner oppdrettere  for den individuelle katten innavlskoeffisient COI for en planlagt kombinasjon. Nå kan faktisk genetisk variasjon analyseres fra kattens DNA!

Genetic Diversity-funksjonen viser hver katts individuelle målte genvariasjon (heterosygositet) analysert fra DNA og basert på tusener av basepar fra genomet til katten. COI er beregnet statistikk, mens GDiv er observert biologi.

Funksjonen viser også en graf med alle andre katter innen rasen, med medianverdi for rasen, og medianverdi for alle katter. Disse tallene justeres ettersom flere katter testes og fins i databasen.

The cat’s Diversity shown in a graph of all tested cats. The owners other cats are also shown as dots on the graph.

Genetic Diversity - information

Genetic Diversity – information

Diversity vs COI inbreeding

Genetic variation, heterozygosity, can be calculated statistically as COI – coefficient of inbreeding – through the cat’s pedigree, as far back as there are registered cats. COI will be identical for full siblings. Still, we do know that full siblings only share about 50 % DNA, and are genetically different.

With MyCatDNA the individual variation can be analysed through the cat’s DNA!

Genetic Diversity, GDiv, is the observed, individual “inbreeding” – genetic variation – for each individual. GDiv is biology where COI is statistics.

COI inbreeding coefficient:

  • best when lowest possible
  • theory
  • statistics, mathematics
  • identical for all full siblings

Genetic Diversity GDiv:

  • best when highest possible
  • practice
  • biology, genetics
  • variation up to 3 % for full siblings

 

Genetisk variasjon, heterozygositet, kan beregnes statistisk som COI – innavlskoeffisient – gjennom å bruke stamtavlen til katten, så langt tilbake rasen er registrert. COI vil være identisk for helsøsken. Likevel vet vi jo at helsøsken i gjennomsnitt deler 50 % DNA, og er altså genetisk forskjellige.

Med MyCatDNA så kan den individuelle innavlsgraden analyseres direkte i kattens DNA!

Genetic Diversity, GDiv, er den observerte, individuelle “innavlsgraden” – genetisk variasjon – for hvert individ. GDiv er biologi der COI er statistikk.

COI innavlskoeffisient:

  • best når lavest mulig
  • teori
  • statistikk, matematikk
  • identisk for alle helsøsken

Genetic Diversity GDiv:

  • best når høyest mulig
  • praksis
  • biologi, genetikk
  • variasjon på opptil 3 % for helsøsken

 

4. Genetic Relationship

The genetic relationship between all tested cats in the breed is also presented in a 3D model, where you can use the mouse pointer to drag the figure in all directions, and also zoom in. Each tested cat in the breed is shown as one dot, and the graph is adjusted when more cats in the breed are tested and included in the database.

Genetisk slektskap mellom alle testede katter i rasen presenteres i en 3D-modell, der man kan bruke musepekeren og dra figuren i flere retninger, og også zoome inn. Figuren viser én prikk pr testede katt i databasen, og grafen endres ettersom flere og flere katter innen rasen testes.

Drogon and his siblings are very unrelated to the cluster of Finnish cats shown in blue.

This function is easier to see “live” so check it out yourself through one of the profiles for a cat set Public.

 

5. Breeder Tool

When Breeder Tool is activated, you can see a list of potential partners, with information about the mating. It shows possible risk of disorders in the combination, blood type genes, and estimated genetic variation in the combination.

You have to opt in to see your cat’s potential partners

Breeder Tool er et avlsverktøy for å sammenligne mulige partnere i databasen. Det viser mulig sykdomsrisiko for de testede sykdommene, blodtypeutfall, og beregnet genetisk variasjon i kombinasjonen.

In Breeder Tool you can see a list of potential partners, with information about possible risk of disorders in the combination, and estimated genetic variation in the combination

Close relatives will be shown last in the list.   Nære slektninger vises da helt nederst i listen.

Potential matings for Drogon with his sisters

In Breeder Tool any mutations for disorders will be included in the potential combinations, and you get information about risk for kittens/offspring.

I avlsverktøyet Breeder Tool er status for sykdomsmutasjoner inkludert, i de mulige paringskombinasjonene, og man får informasjon om risiko for mulig avkom.

Recessive: Mating carriers  –  Paring av bærere

When mating two carriers of a recessive disorder, you get 25 % risk of affected offspring with two copies of the mutation, shown in red. 50 % risk of carriers (yellow) and 25 % chance of clear offspring (green).  Carriers should always be mated to clear only, to avoid risk.

Når man parer to bærere av en recessiv lidelse, er det 25 % risiko for at avkom får to kopier av sykdomsmutasjonen, vist i rødt. Det er 50 % sjanse for bærere (gul), og 25 % sjanse for fri/negativt (grønn) avkom. Bærer skal alltid pares pare med negative katter, for å unngå risiko.

Mating 2 carriers give 25 % risk of affected kittens (shown red)

 

Dominant: Mating heterozygous positive – paring av hetero

The figure below shows what it looks like when test mating a HCM1-MCO heterozygous cat. This mutation is dominant, with incomplete penetrance, meaning there is risk with only 1 copy of the allele.

HCM1-A31P (MCO) hetero + hetero mating

Offspring in both matings will have 75 % risk of inheriting the HCM mutation, 25 % risk of being homozygous positive, with a very high risk of HCM. Since this is a dominant gene, there is risk even for heterozygous positive cats. Risk for the kittens marked in red.

Combinations

The Breeder Tool list for a cat wil show all the test matings. Figure below shows a hetero HCM mated with first one PK carrier, and then one clear of both mutations. The combination shows risk for their offspring if mated.

A HCM1-MCO heterozygous cat, test mated with one PK carrier, and one clear.

  • Green: Clear, no copies of the mutation
  • Yellow: Carrier of recessive disorders
  • Red: At risk, heterozygous for dominant disorder
  • Red: At risk, homozygous for recessive disorder

 

6. Examples and further information

This chapter is under construction, and will be expanded with more examples later. In English for now.

a) Breeder Tool estimates and actual offspring diversity

Genetic Diversity in a potential mating will come up in Breeder Tool. This gives the statistical estimate of diversity.

We have some families of cats where both parents and offspring have been tested, showing interesting results to compare.

Example A: Suki & Aegon with 3 offspring tested:

  • estimated diversity in Breeder Tool 38,5 %
  • Drogon tested 37,5 %
  • Daenerys tested 38,8 %
  • Dorea tested 39,4 %

 

Example B: Fleming & 2 B-sisters, 2 kittens in each litter tested:

Fleming was mated with two sisters, and the COI for the mating is identical for all offspring. However, the sisters do not have identical genomes, and the 4 kittens, 2 from each combination tested, show a variation.

  • Betzy & Fleming – estimated diversity in Breeder Tool 38,9 %
  • Eddard tested 37,1 %
  • Edmure tested 37,6 %
  • Brienne & Fleming estimated diversity in Breeder Tool 38,7 %
  • Fair Sansa tested 38,2 %
  • Fantastic Meera Reed tested 39,2 %

We see that the differences in Diversity are up to 2 % here, and we also have examples of almost 3 %.

Especially when working with low diversity and a highly inbred population, selecting offspring for breeding using this test might help to get better variation in the breed.

 

b) Comparisons of COI and Diversity

For Maine Coon we already have a large amount of data with many MCO in the pioneer test groups. Our Scandiavian test group consists of 60 MCO alone, and we have pedigrees and data for all of them. Here are some of the results:

  • Overall estimated COI (coefficient of inbreeding) back to foundation corresponds very well with the Genetic Variation number for the cats.
  • COI has better correlation with measured Diversity than Clones and Top 5
  • Full siblings (with identical COI) have some variation in Diversity with up to 3 % difference

Comparison of Ragdoll and Maine Coon COI and Diversity:

Typical MCO COI is 15 %

Typical Ragdoll COI is up to over 60 % for socalled traditional lines, range 20-35 % for other lines

Still the graphs, median value and distribution of Genetic Diversity is very similar for the two breeds. The actual inbreeding levels are thus about the same.

 

7. Differences in cat breeds – most and least inbred?

Which breeds are most inbred, which ones have the most diversity?

Low diversity = high inbreeding

Here are some numbers from 1 March 2018. The values are recalculated as more and more cats are tested and included in the database. There is a minimum of 30 tested cats in a breed before the graphs and numbers are created.

  • Huskatt/random bred cats: 38,9 %
  • SIB 37,9 %
  • BSH 35,8 %
  • SPH 35,2 %
  • MCO 34,6 %
  • RAG 33,7 %
  • BEN 33,4 %
  • Pedigreed cats average/Rasekatter gjennomsnitt: 33,4 %
  • TUV 33,2 %
  • CRX 33 %
  • DRX 32 %
  • ABY 28,9 %
  • SBI 24,8 %
  • SIA 24 %
  • BUR 21,2 %

So far the most inbred breed is Burmese cats, and the most diverse is Siberians.

Så langt er den mest innavlede rasen Burmeser, mens den med mest variasjon er Sibirkatt.

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More figures for other breeds will be published as they are available.  Informasjon for flere raser kommer når det er klart.

 

8. FAQ

Questions in English and Norwegian …

 

– How long will it take to get the results?

When the sample has arrived in the laboratory in Finland, the analysis normally takes 3-4 weeks.

– I have some problems with my account, how to edit the cat’s information, enter Breeder Tool or set Public

We have a Facebook group where you can get practical help with all this. Join here (link will be added)

– No call – what does that mean?

It means that the analysis did not give an exact answer, or no answer. The DNA could not be read, for this locus/base pair. In a test panel this can happen occasionally. Sometimes the reason is that the actual test is not “easy” with neighbouring areas interfering.

If the locus/test is important to find out anyway, a separate single test could be ordered at another lab.

– Can I test a kitten?

Yes, there is no age limit for this test. However, it is advised that a cat has been weaned, as milk from the mother can contaminate the sample.

– Will all results be Public?

That is up to the owner, one can choose to share all the results with the public, or keep them private. In Breeder Tool the cat’s status for disorders will be visible. Breeder Tool is opt in.

 

– Forbundet krever at all testing gjøres av veterinær, med ID-kontroll av katten som testes.

I den ferdige rapporten som kan printes ut som PDF står det oppgitt om testingen er gjort av veterinær, eller om den er gjort privat. Man kan også ta kopi av skjemaet veterinæren signerer ved prøvetakingen, og legge ved rapporten når alt sendes inn til forbundet.

 

Where to buy MyCatDNA

(coming)

In the USA, the test is sold as Wisdom Panel, by Optimal Selection/Mars vet. Order here if you are a US or Canada resident.

Optimal Selection

MyDogDNA for dogs has already been on the market a few years

MyDogDNA

MyDogDNA

Genoscoper

 

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